Terrestrial Ecotoxicology

  • Fera offers a wide range of standardised laboratory studies, aged residue tests as well as more complex higher tier studies under extended laboratory, glasshouse, semi-field and field conditions with standard or bespoke designs.
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Terrestrial Ecotoxicology



Fera offers a wide range of standardised Phase I laboratory studies, aged residue tests as well as more complex higher tier studies under extended laboratory, glasshouse, semi-field and field conditions with standard or special designs. All studies are planned and performed by an experienced team of scientists and technical personnel. 

All studies are planned in accordance with the current international guidelines (OECD, ISO, IOBC, EPA, WPRS) and guidance documents. We can also adapt our services to provide bespoke tests that meet your specific data requirements. 

"Our routine tests can be adapted to suit your particular data requirements"


Fera has the best people in the right place focussed on delivering the right solution. We continuously invest in our people and support them in delivering the best science to our partners.
Areas of Expertise

Nick Jarratt

Nick is the science lead for Terrestrial Ecotoxicology here at Fera. Nick has over 18 years practical experience of conducting ecotoxicology studies for both government and contract research laboratories. Nick’s focus is the effects of organic substances including agrochemicals, veterinary medicines and feed additives on non-target arthropods, terrestrial plants and soil organisms.

Meet the scientists

Steve Mattock

Steve is the Head of the Ecotoxicology group at Fera. Steve has over 22 years practical experience of conducting ecotoxicology studies in both industry and contract research laboratories. In addition, he has also spent over 15 years working as an environmental risk assessor preparing ecotoxicology risk assessments for plant protection products, biocides and REACH related registrations.

Chris Sinclair

Chris Sinclair

Chris is an expert in regulatory environmental risk assessment processes, registration requirements and guidance for pharmaceuticals, veterinary medicines and pesticides, with over 15 years experience. He also leads on the ecotoxicology of chemicals (quantifying the impact chemicals have on terrestrial and aquatic organisms from earthworms and plants to fish and crustaceans). 


By Sector : Environmental Risk Assessments

Related Fera Product 1

Plant Protection Products (PPP)

Standard studies (non-target arthropods, soil organisms and terrestrial plants), required by Regulation (EC) No.1107/2009 for environmental risk assessments for plant protection products. 

Higher tier studies to refine the risk assessments for plant protection products. Studies include Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) for terrestrial plants, aged residue studies for non-target arthropods and semi field and field trials. 

Related Fera Product 2

Veterinary Medicinal Products & Feed Additives

Standard studies (soil organisms and terrestrial plants) required by VICH GL38 and FEEDAP (2008) for environmental risk assessments for veterinary medicinal products and feed additives.  Specialist studies (dung organisms) required for endo/ectoparasiticides used in pasture treatments. Higher tier studies to refine the risk assessments for veterinary medicinal products and feed additives. Studies include Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) and extended terrestrial plant studies using manure mediated exposure.

Related Fera Product 3

Bespoke Studies

Ability to develop and adapt test designs. 

We have conducted trials under laboratory, glasshouse and field conditions investigating seed treatment dissipation and uptake into plant tissues. 

We have adapted terrestrial plant studies (OECD 208) to determine the period, manure containing specific veterinary medicinal products needs to be stored before they are safe to be released into the environment


Our Services - Non Target Anthropods,
Terrestrial Plants and Soil Organism

Non-target Arthopods 

Test Guideline Description
IOBC/WPRS Mead-Briggs, et al (2000). A laboratory test for evaluating the effects of plant protection products on the parasitic wasp, Aphidius rhopalosiphi (DeStephani-Perez) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)
IOBC/WPRS Mead-Briggs et al (2010). An extended laboratory test for evaluating the effects of plant protection products on the parasitic wasp, Aphidius rhopalosiphi (Hymenoptera, Braconidae).   The study can also be performed in an aged residue design
IOBC/WPRS Blümel S, et al (2000). Laboratory residual contact test with the predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten (Acari: Phytoseiidae) for regulatory testing of plant protection products.  The study can also be performed in an aged residue design
IOBC/WPRS Schmuck R, et al (2000). A laboratory test system for assessing effects of plant protection products on the plant dwelling insect Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
IOBC/WPRS Vogt H. et al (2000). Laboratory method to test effects of plant protection products on larvae of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).
IOBC/WPRS Grimm et al (2000). A test for evaluating the chronic effects of plant protection products on the rove beetle Aleochara bilineata Gyll. (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) under laboratory and extended laboratory conditions.
IOBC/WPRS A method for testing effects of plant protection products on the carabid beetle Poecilus cupreus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) under laboratory, and semi-field conditions
Heimbach, U., et al (2000). A method for testing effects of plant protection products on spiders of the genus Pardosa (Araneae, Lycosidae) under laboratory conditions.

Terrestrial Plants

Test Guideline Description
OECD TG 208Terrestrial Plant Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test The study can also be performed in an SSD or manure-mediated exposure design
OECD TG 227 Terrestrial Plant Test: Vegetative Vigour Test The study can also be performed in an SSD design

Soil Organisms

Test Guideline Description
OECD TG 207Earthworm, Acute Toxicity Tests
OECD TG 222 Earthworm Reproduction Test (Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei)
OECD TG 216Soil Microorganisms: Nitrogen Transformation Test
OECD TG 226 Predatory mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) Reproduction Test in Soil
OECD TG 232 Collembolan Reproduction Test in Soil

Dung Fauna

Test Guideline Description
OECD TG 228Determination of Developmental Toxicity of a Test Chemical to Dipteran Dung Flies (Scathophaga stercoraria L. (Scathophagidae), Musca autumnalis De Geer (Muscidae))

Resources - Factsheets

wasps

Parasitoid Wasp

rove beetle

Rove Beetle

carabid beetle

Carabid Beetle

predatory bug

Predatory Bug



ladybird

Labybird Beetle

wolf spider

Wolf Spider

green lacewing

Green Lacewing

predatory plant Mites

Predatory Plant Mites



predatory soil Mites

Predatory Soil Mites

earthworms

Earthworm Acute

earthworms

Earthworm Reproduction

springtail

Springtail



Listen to our team



Fera works closely with plant protection, biocide, animal health and chemical manufacturers to help develop effective, sustainable and safe products that enhance output whilst minimising adverse environmental impacts.

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Read more about what we do in Chemical Regulation


We work across:

  • Ecotoxicology
  • Fate & metabolism
  • Livestock metabolism and residue studies
  • Efficacy services
  • Analytical chemistry
  • Consultancy


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