Virus Testing

Fera’s virology diagnosis team utilises a range of testing measures, including leading next generation sequencing methods, to assess unknown crop health issues.

Virus Testing

The virology diagnostics team at Fera utilises a range of tests, including ELISA, and molecular methods such as PCR and next generation sequencing, to both detect and identify a range of plant affecting viruses, viroids and phytoplasmas.

Accurate plant virus diagnosis is integral to effective crop management. Fera’s virus diagnosis team can work with you to select the correct diagnostics package for your plant sample. The tests offered can be used for diagnosing symptomatic plants and for screening for latent infections. This ensures your crop management strategy is fit for purpose and able to address any potential viruses within your crop, mitigating the potential economic risk to your harvest. 

ELISA

ELISA is a tried and tested technique which can provide accurate, cost-effective diagnosis for a range of known viruses across many plant hosts. ELISA is widely used for initial screening tests, and this method may be supported with further testing by TaqMan® or PCR to provide species confirmation when detecting and identifying viruses within plant samples.

TaqMan® & PCR

Molecular tests such as TaqMan® and PCR offer sensitive and accurate diagnosis based on detecting the DNA or RNA of pathogens in plant samples. Fera’s virology diagnostics team suggest appropriate tests for the plant species and symptoms. These methods can also be used to provide rapid screening services across a range of known viruses.

If you require testing for a virus not listed please contact us to discuss further.

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)

The plant virology team at Fera are leading the world in the application of NGS-informed plant virus diagnosis. This rapidly developing diagnostic tool can be used to detect and identify previously unknown pathogens. The technology can also enhance the use of conventional diagnostic methods for atypical pathogens such as the detection and identification of Maize Lethal Necrosis in Eastern Africa detailed in the case study below.

Fera's Standard Virus Tests

Virus Test

Method of Analysis

African cassava mosaic virus

ELISA

Alfalfa mosaic virus

ELISA

American hop latent virus

ELISA

Andean potato latent virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Andean potato mottle virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Angelonia flower break virus

ELISA

Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus

ELISA

Apple mosaic virus

ELISA

Apple stem grooving virus

ELISA

Apple stem pitting virus

ELISA

Arabis mosaic virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Arracacha B virus, oca strain

ELISA

Asparagus virus 1

ELISA

Asparagus virus 2

ELISA

Barley mild mosaic virus

TaqMan

Barley stripe mosaic virus

ELISA

Barley yellow dwarf virus

ELISA

Barley yellow mosaic virus

TaqMan

Bean common mosaic necrosis virus

ELISA

Bean common mosaic virus

ELISA

Bean leaf roll virus

ELISA

Bean yellow mosaic virus

ELISA

Beet curly top virus

ELISA

Beet necrotic yellow vein virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Beet necrotic yellow vein virus - P pathotype

TaqMan

Beet yellows virus

ELISA

Blackcurrant reversion virus

TaqMan

Blueberry leaf mottle virus

ELISA

Blueberry scorch virus

ELISA

Blueberry shock virus

ELISA

Blueberry shoestring virus

ELISA

Broad bean mottle virus

ELISA

Broad bean stain virus

ELISA

Broad bean true mosaic virus

ELISA

Broad bean wilt virus - 1

ELISA

Broad bean wilt virus - 2

ELISA

Calibrachoa mottle virus

ELISA

Canna yellow mottle virus

PCR

Canna yellow streak virus

PCR

Carlavirus

PCR

Carnation cryptic virus

ELISA

Carnation etched ring virus

ELISA

Carnation latent virus

ELISA

Carnation mottle virus

ELISA

Carnation necrotic fleck virus

ELISA

Carnation ringspot virus

ELISA

Carrot closterovirus

TaqMan

Carrot mottle virus

TaqMan

Carrot red leaf associated RNA

TaqMan

Carrot red leaf virus

TaqMan

Carrot torrado virus

TaqMan

Carrot yellow leaf virus

TaqMan

Cassava brown streak virus

PCR

Cauliflower mosaic virus

ELISA

Celery mosaic virus

ELISA

Cherry leaf roll virus

ELISA

Chili veinal mottle virus

ELISA

Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Chrysanthemum stunt viroid

TaqMan

Chrysanthemum virus B

ELISA

Citrus exocortis viroid

TaqMan

Citrus tristeza virus

ELISA

Clover yellow mosaic virus

ELISA

Clover yellow vein virus

ELISA

Coconut cadang cadang viroid

TaqMan

Columnea latent viroid

TaqMan

Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

ELISA

Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

ELISA

Cucumber leaf spot virus

ELISA

Cucumber mosaic virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus

ELISA

Cymbidium mosaic virus

ELISA

Cymbidium ringspot virus

ELISA

Dahlia mosaic virus

PCR

Dasheen mosaic virus

ELISA

Eggplant mosaic virus

ELISA

Eggplant mottled dwarf virus

ELISA

Erysimum latent virus

ELISA

European mountain ash ringspot associated virus

PCR

Fig mosaic virus

TaqMan

Grapevine fan leaf virus

ELISA

Groundnut ringspot virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Hop latent viroid

TaqMan

Hop mosaic virus

ELISA

Hop stunt viroid

PCR

Hosta Virus X

ELISA

Impatiens necrotic spot virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Iris yellow spot virus

ELISA

Kalanchoe latent virus

ELISA

Kyuri green mottle mosaic virus

ELISA

Lettuce big vein virus

ELISA

Lettuce mosaic virus

ELISA

Maize chlorotic mottle virus

ELISA

Maize dwarf mosaic virus

ELISA

Maize mosaic virus

ELISA

Virus Test

Method of Analysis

Maize streak virus

ELISA

Maracuja mosaic virus

ELISA

Melon necrotic spot virus

ELISA

Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus

ELISA

Miscanthus streak virus

TaqMan

Odontoglossum ringspot virus

ELISA

Onion yellow dwarf virus

ELISA

Papaya leaf curl virus

ELISA

Papaya mosaic virus

ELISA

Papaya ringspot virus

ELISA

Paprika mild mottle virus

ELISA

Passiflora latent virus

ELISA

Pea early browning virus

ELISA

Pea enation mosaic virus

ELISA

Pea seed-borne mosaic virus

ELISA

Peach rosette mosaic virus

ELISA

Pear blister canker viroid

PCR

Pelargonium flower break virus

ELISA

Pelargonium line pattern virus

ELISA

Pelargonium zonate spot virus

ELISA

Pepino mosaic virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Pepper chat fruit viroid

TaqMan

Pepper mild mottle virus

ELISA and PCR

Pepper mottle virus

ELISA

Petunia asteroid mosaic virus

ELISA

Phytoplasma

TaqMan or PCR

Plum pox virus

ELISA and PCR

Poinsettia mosaic virus

ELISA

Poplar mosaic virus

ELISA

Pospiviroids

PCR

Potato aucuba mosaic virus

ELISA

Potato black ringspot virus

ELISA

Potato leaf roll virus

ELISA

Potato mop top virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Potato spindle tuber viroid

TaqMan

Potato virus A

ELISA

Potato virus M

ELISA

Potato virus S

ELISA

Potato virus V

ELISA

Potato virus X

ELISA

Potato virus Y

ELISA

Potato Virus Y n

ELISA

Potato virus Y o

ELISA

Potato yellowing virus

ELISA

potexvirus

PCR

Potyvirus

ELISA or PCR

Prune dwarf virus

ELISA

Prunus necrotic ringspot virus

ELISA

Raspberry bushy dwarf virus

ELISA

Raspberry leaf blotch virus

PCR

Raspberry ringspot virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Ribgrass mosaic virus

ELISA

Rose rosette virus

TaqMan

Saguaro cactus virus

ELISA

Scrophularia mottle virus

ELISA

Soil borne cereal mosaic virus

ELISA

Southern bean mosaic virus

ELISA

Sowbane mosaic virus

ELISA

Squash leaf curl virus

ELISA

Squash mosaic virus

ELISA

Strawberry crinkle virus

TaqMan

Strawberry latent ringspot virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Strawberry mild yellow edge virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Strawberry mottle virus

TaqMan

Strawberry vein banding virus

TaqMan

Sugarcane mosaic virus

ELISA

Sugarcane yellow leaf virus

TaqMan

Tobacco etch virus

ELISA

Tobacco mild green mosaic virus

ELISA

Tobacco mosaic virus

ELISA

Tobacco necrosis virus

ELISA

Tobacco rattle virus

TaqMan

Tobacco ringspot virus

ELISA

Tobacco streak virus

ELISA

Tomato apical stunt viroid

TaqMan

Tomato aspermy virus

ELISA

Tomato black ring virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Tomato bushy stunt virus

ELISA

Tomato leaf curl new Delhi virus

ELISA

Tomato mosaic virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Tomato ringspot virus

ELISA

Tomato spotted wilt virus

ELISA or TaqMan

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

TaqMan

Tulip breaking virus

ELISA

Turnip mosaic virus

ELISA

Turnip yellow mosaic virus

ELISA or PCR

Turnip yellows virus

ELISA

Viola mottle virus

ELISA

Viola white distortion associated virus

TaqMan

Watermelon mosaic virus 2

ELISA

Watermelon silver mottle virus

ELISA

Wisteria vein mosaic virus

PCR

Zucchini green mottle mosaic virus

ELISA

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

ELISA

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